In most cases where you receive a parcel from overseas, it's the Japan Post who delivers it at your door in Japan. However, if you are not home, the postman leaves a piece of paper which is called 不在表（ふざいひょう fuzai-hyo), or officially 郵便物等お預かりのお知らせ（ゆうびんぶつ とう おあずかり の おしらせ yubinbutsu tou oazukari no oshirase）in case of JP.
Sample (image from the website of JP)
Here is a link to the page by JP for international exchange students, in which various postal services are explained.
Practical Guide for International Students (Japan Post)
And here is the page on re-delivery issues in English
Re-Delivery (Japan Post)
You can reschedule the delivery by:
1) the 24h automated answering telephone (toll free)
2) online from the JP website
3) mail (using the notice sheet)
Now we're going to explain How to Rescheduling Deliveries Online (opens a new window), which should be quick and easy for everyone that uses the Internet.
If you would like a PDF version, click here to download.